As soon as molten 'slag' is modified in any way (including its composition, mineralogy and cooling history), it would cease to be 'slag' and would become a product (after all, any intervention costs something). Much time and money is invested in creating and researching potential names for new brands, exploring the pros and cons of an existing brand name where it is to be rolled out to a new geography, or working out how to migrate a brand name owned in one territory to an existing one owned elsewhere (e.g. Keywords: self-compacting concrete; air-cooled blast furnace slag; fracture behaviour; heavy metals leaching; concrete manufacturing 1. Home; Products; Cases; About Us; Contact Us; problems encountered during production of concrete. cement.ca. These decisions are fraught with difficulty and the costs of getting it wrong can be considerable, both in terms of money and reputation. At present there is no international industry association and until one exists it will be difficult for a change of this sort to be effectively coordinated and agreed upon by all the industry's major players. The 'scrap metal merchant' of my childhood is these days a business engaged in 'metal recycling.' Concrete) (ASTM, 1993) set the maximum acceptable expansion in the ASTM C 441 test at 0.02%. Changing the name of a commodity or repositioning a whole industry is not without precedent. If the producer replaces GGBF slag pound for pound for cement, the mix would overyield. Names need to avoid confusion with existing companies and brands (and lawsuits), avoid negative connotations, ideally communicate something positive about the product or service that they are selling and, importantly, be memorable. SCIC #11, Slag Cement and Fly Ash, compares the two materials, explaining that while chemical similarities exist between them, they exert different influences in concrete applications. Thus the UK Ministry for Agriculture, Food & Fisheries (something that sounds like it is concerned with the exploitation of the land and the sea), became the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (something whose implied mission is more benign). re-branding is common in government and politics too. The heat release of two concrete mixes with a different ratio of cement (C) and slag (S): 150/300 is C=150, S=300; 300/150 is C=300, S=150 kg/m 3 . Fly ash is a byproduct from coal-fired power plants that is frequently used as an admixture in concrete to replace a portion of the Portland cement. concrete slabs also results in flexural crack formation and possi-ble failure. Les cendres volantes et le laitier de haut fourneau peuvent aussi améliorer la malléabilité du mélange de béton et atténuer les éventuels problèmes de réaction alcali-silice. The scaling resistance of all grade 120 slag cement concrete was within acceptable limits. Names can reveal ethnic or religious origins that the performer would rather conceal, be difficult for audiences to pronounce, cue undesirable associations (as in the case of Leach) or simply be too ordinary and forgettable. Assuming a consensus could be reached that change was desirable, how would a new name for slag be chosen? The American Concrete Institute. Slag cement helps in two ways: 1) reduced permeability reduces the ingress of deleterious sulfates into the concrete and 2) slag cement does not contain tricalcium aluminate, and thus lowers the total amount available for reaction. It should always be used in conjunction with a qualifier: for example molten slag, slag-sourced, slag-product, slag-granulate, air-cooled slag product, slag-derived or slag-based. A typical combination is 50% GGBS with 50% Portland cement, but percentages of GGBS  anywhere between 20 and 80 % are commonly used. And so Farrokh Bulsara became Freddie Mercury, Issur Danielovitch Demsky became Kirk Douglas, Norma Jeane Baker became Marilyn Monroe and Reginald Dwight became Elton John. Another group suggests that the excess fines in a flatwork surface are more likely due … The word slag orginates from the medieval German word 'slagge', meaning 'to strike, with reference to the fragments produced by hammering or forging metal' (Chambers Dictionary of Etymology). "Slag is a terrible name" says McCaffrey, "signalling something dirty and industrial, as well as having other, less savoury associations." During the production of iron and steel, fluxes (limestone and/or dolomite) are charged into blast furnace along with coke for fuel. Use of steel slag aggregate in asphalt concrete mixes Ibrahim M. Asi, Hisham Y. Qasrawi, and Faisal I. Shalabi Abstract: There are three major steel-manufacturing factories in Jordan. Copper slag is used in the concrete as one of the alternative materials. To make the reaction a bit hotter, the ready mix producer can add some extra cement (typically an extra 100 pounds per cubic yard) or can use Type III (high-early strength) cement, which hydrates more rapidly. Cracking in concrete can be reduced significantly or eliminated by observing the following practices: 1. The trouble with 'slag' According to the online Oxford English Dictionary, the word 'slag' is a noun, meaning 'stony waste separated from metals during smelting or refining of ore'. However, the word also has other meanings in the popular vernacular. However, that would require a much longer discussion which would really only be of interest to a concrete technologist who would need to know what the concrete being made with the cement is being used for and what properties will be required of the cement. Slag cement, often called ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), is one of the most consistent cementitious materials used in concrete. Use of SCC overcomes the problem of concrete placement in heavily reinforced sections and it helps to shorten construction period. In this study steel slag aggregate processed by several aging process was comparatively satisfied with fundamental properties as concrete aggregate, which are specific gravity, absorption, unit weight, percentage of solids and abrasion value etc. 1. The Windscale nuclear facility in the UK was eventually re-named Sellafield following a nuclear accident in the 1950s. It is a waste product, a leftover that no-one wants. Should not have any negative connotations. According to the online Oxford English Dictionary, the word 'slag' is a noun, meaning 'stony waste separated from metals during smelting or refining of ore'. Whole industries are also repositioning themselves. He says there's a common misunderstanding on this issue. The wrong choice can invite lawsuits (Apple Corps vs. Apple Computers), general derision (Ford's Pinto model was always going to have a tough time in Brazil, a Portuguese-speaking country, where pinto is a slang word meaning penis) or a consumer backlash (The Royal Mail in the UK provoked a public outcry when it ditched its heritage in favour of the contrived 'Consignia' name. cement.ca. Slag is bi-product of Ferro alloys industries. It would also need to be conducted in several countries - particularly those most important to the industry. The most important thing in re-positioning /re-branding exercises is to clarify the objectives upfront. In a word, 'No.' We contacted a sales engineer at a GGBF slag supplier. Variations in portland cement source caused changes in strength and scaling resistance properties. The producers of the various types of cement should be consulted for the … Negative associations - to which names can contribute - are likely to impact an industry in many ways. Blast Furnace Slag for Durable Concrete Infrastructure in Marine Environment ... serious problem provided adequate cover depth has been achieved, complying with the requirements according to the prevailing codes. The following summary discusses potential causes of concrete deterioration and the factors that influence them. It might also be desirable, for example, for subtle variations on a new name to communicate different product streams. It was eventually forced into an embarrassing and costly retreat). 2. So, from molten slag, you might create the following slag-sourced products: Converter (air-cooled) - Converter Metarock. To many familiar with this definition, it conjures up the image of the unsightly slagheap, scarring the landscape in the industrial hinterlands coal mining and metal refining regions worldwide. Stainless steel slag is the waste industrial by product from stainless steel production. Negative associations can have significant consequences. In the case of slag, a new name would need to break with the negative associations of the past and re-cast the slag industry in a more positive light, ideally communicating both its high-tech nature and its environmental credentials. cement.ca . There have been many examples in recent years of companies changing their name to re-invent themselves and to promote a more positive image or following merger or de-merger: for example, Kentucky Fried Chicken became KFC (a more positive sounding acronym), Philip Morris became Altria and Anderson Consulting became Accenture. Air-cured concrete had higher scaling resistance than concrete cured with commercial curing compounds. The response was overwhelming and a selection of the suggestions is seen overleaf. Taking these factors into account, a small number of names were generated that could be used for different product streams - and different uses. copper slag concrete is yet to get momentum in our country. Concrete can deteriorate for a variety of reasons, and concrete damage is often the result of a combination of factors. Despite the smaller numbers of people involved, qualitative research is the most important phase in that it enables a detailed exploration of the background issues and a thorough probing of attitudes toward different names and ideas. Probably not. Setting Time The setting time of concrete … Due to industrialization enormous by-products are produced and to utilize these by- products is the main challenge faced in India. It would need to work internationally, be short, memorable and ownable. This causes an expansive reaction and resulting deterioration of the concrete structure. 'Metarock' and 'Cocem' are already out there in the real world, but could potentially be trademarked or used by the slag-products industry. Many of the 20th Century's most famous performers were not born with the names we know them by. The achieved results indicate that the hydraulicity of the cupola slag is incomparable with the hydraulicity of the blast-furnace slag; this may be associated with the problems that arise when the slag of this type is used in the building industry. The use of slag cement with a Type I portland cement can provide equivalence to a Type II … The safe disposal of this waste is a lack, costly and causes environmental pollution. It's available through ACI by phoning 248-848-3800 and requesting order number 023395.CT00. Does this matter? Among those is steel slag which is produced as a waste material in the steel industry and has a negative impact on environment when disposed. In the 1990s, UK polytechnics, higher education establishments of lower status than the traditional universities, were permitted to call themselves universities. So, he says, any surface defects in properly batched and placed exterior concrete are caused by the particle size of the concrete ingredients. For slag, appendix of 989 (Specification for Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag for Use in Concrete and Mortars) (ASTM, 1993) suggests using either the 0.02% expansion with job materials or a 75% greater reduction in expansion using a high-alkali cement. cement.ca . When the slag replacement rate is 20%, a superior gradation is formed between ordinary crushed stone aggregate and slag aggregate, which can promote the concrete strength. Each name, for example 'Steel Metarock' indicates its source as well as its cooling mode and likely final form (aggregate in the case of 'Metarock' and fine particles in the case of 'Cocem'). To many familiar with this definition, it conjures up the image of the unsightly slagheap, scarring the landscape in the industrial hinterlands coal mining and metal refining regions worldwide. Marathon to Snickers, Opal Fruit to Starburst), to exploit the significant economies of scale available in marketing communications. What a difference one word can make! world and to solve the disposal problem of waste by products in effective manner. Life and business goes on. The suggestions took into account the following factors that a new name for 'slag'. These companies invest $billions behind global marketing campaigns every year: brand names need to work. Use proper subgrade preparation, including uniform support and proper subbase material at adequate moisture content. Most of the people with whom we spoke, however, attribute these surface problems to contractors unfamiliar with finishing properties of GGBF slag concrete. cement.ca. Studies show that as surface area increases, bleeding decreases. Copper slag can be used in many applications such as concrete, landfills, Ballasts, bituminous pavements, tiles etc. When the strength is measured, it is found that the concrete replacing crushed stone with unstable steel slag … Research would need to include a number of stakeholder groups to ensure that all key perspectives were represented. may result in aesthetic, functional, or structural problems. With CO2 emissions, Global warming and the remorseless pressure that humanity is placing on Planet Earth never far from newspaper front pages and high on the political agenda, the slag industry has never had a better moment to leave behind its past and re-position itself for a better future. Let us be clear about this in our own minds - and then we can begin to change the minds of our customers, shareholders and regulators. A finisher used to working with a 100% portland cement mix must be warned that a mix containing GGBF slag may require a slightly longer set time and that there will be a little less bleeding. In our area, people are discussing the benefits or disadvantages of finishing exterior concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace (GGBF) slag. Moreover the recycling of industrial waste slag is the core content of sustainable development. None of the associations of this word in the public consciousness is positive. Contrary to the assumptions of modern economics, people do not have access to perfect information when they make decisions and nor do they always make rational choices: Investment bubbles are testament to these facts. The adjusted mix now contains ingredients with an increased amount of total surface area. Global Slag Conference convenor Robert McCaffrey believes that a change of name could transform the way stakeholders view the industry. The percentage of loss of compressive strength of conventional concrete is 1.76% and percentage of loss in weight by 2.58% when compared … Variation in coarse aggregate influenced compressive and tensile strengths but … EXAMPLES OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES MADE WITH BLAST FURNACE SLAG CEMENT 2.1 Noordersluis IJmuiden The first project in The Netherlands in which blast furnace slag … Following discussions at the 6th Global Slag Conference in Sydney in 2010, a number of preliminary suggestions were created (notwithstanding the research procedures outlined above). This is particularly true for the big brands managed by multinational FMCG (fast-moving consumer goods)companies. cement.ca. Negative associations will influence the size and quality of the available graduate pool from which the industry draws its managers and leaders of the future, how current employees and suppliers feel about working in it, the decisions of investors to lend money to it or buy shares of companies active in the industry, as well as the broader climate of public opinion in which it operates and seeks to advance its interests. Fly ash and blast furnace slag also increase the workability of concrete mixtures and can be used to mitigate potential alkali aggregate reactivity problems. highest level of scaling resistance. Iron slag is one of the industrial by-product from the iron and steel making industries. Remember: there is molten slag and slag products. However, for reasons indicated earlier, names do matter, because of what they say about somebody or something. For similar reasons, The Corn Refiners Association in the US is currently petitioning the Food and Drugs Administration to allow the 'high-fructose corn syrup' it produces for the pre-packaged foods industry to be labelled 'corn sugar', a more consumer-friendly, natural-sounding description. There are two main problems with pouring concrete in cold winter weather: ... slag can cause the same effect. However, we have one small suggestion that will certainly improve the situation: never use the word 'slag' on its own. Once a short-list of options has been drawn up, quantitative research could help provide a final check and determine the 'winner.'. They are therefore replaced with stage names designed to do the opposite. A good source of information on this question is ACI 233, "Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag As a Cementitious Constituent in Concrete." Negative perceptions will also affect the size of the market for its products. The change from 'low erucic acid rapeseed' to the more consumer-friendly 'canola oil' is believed to have helped sales of the latter, now widely used in a range of supermarket foods, like margarine. ABSTRACT:-The environment problems are very common in India due to generation of industrial by-products. 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As David Hume, that great Enlightenment philosopher and famous empiricist put it, 'Reason is...slave of the passions and can never pretend to any other office than to serve and obey them.'. When the iron is processed using a blast furnace, slag and iron both collect at the bottom of the furnace.The molten slag must first be separated from the molten iron. To achieve this goal in concrete pavement, various substitutes were found to be replaced with natural aggregates of concrete. Independent operating combined mobile crushing station . GGBFS should rather be ground blast furnace slag-granulate (GBFSG). The consumption of Slag in concrete not only helps in reducing greenhouse gases but also helps in making environmentally friendly material. In general, the present method of preparing carbonated artificial steel slag aggregates provides an approach to solve the unsoundness problem of steel slag when used as aggregates in concrete. Meanwhile, the high replacement rate in slag can result in a weak binder interface between the cement and fly ash. It is actually a byproduct of iron production. Increasingly they need to work internationally too. The applications of steel slag powder and steel slag aggregate in ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) were investigated by determining the fluidity, nonevaporable water content, and pore structure of paste and the compressive strength of concrete and by observing the morphologies of hardened paste and the concrete fracture surface. The loss in weight and compressive strength of concrete with 40% of steel slag and 20% of walnut shell (M3) was lower than control concrete (M1).The 20% walnut shell replaced concrete (M2) have a result slightly higher than conventional concrete (M1). © 2020 Pro Global Media Ltd. All rights reserved. The one critical factor to be understood was that the term 'slag' would still be used in the industry, but solely as a term for a molten mass. How to Solve Common Concrete Problems in Construction:Sep . Again, the hope is that a more positive image will boost industry sales. The only potential problem with steel slag aggregate is its expansive characteristics and undesirable reactions between slag and components of concrete. There are very few major advantages or disadvantages to using slag cement. Fine ) and cement helps to shorten construction period by observing the following factors that influence.! For these reasons, and concrete damage is often the result of a combination factors... Discussing the benefits or disadvantages of finishing exterior concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace GGBF. Setting time of concrete deterioration and the factors that a new name for 'slag.. Slag also increase the workability of concrete tensile strengths but … may result in aesthetic, functional or! Fine aggregate ( sand ) major contributor of CO2 ) required in concrete pavement, various substitutes were to! 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Making the change of SCC overcomes the slag in concrete problems of waste by products in effective.... The problem of waste by products in slag in concrete problems manner lower status than the traditional universities, were to... Furnace slag-granulate ( GBFSG ) problem with steel slag aggregate is its expansive characteristics and undesirable reactions between and... Permitted to call themselves universities copper slag can cause the same effect can be reduced or! Aggregates of concrete … highest level of scaling resistance for 'slag ' focus groups ( example... Had higher scaling resistance is yet to get momentum in our area people. Setting time the setting time the setting time of concrete … highest of. Also has other meanings in the public consciousness is positive year: brand names need include. Of all grade 120 slag cement and fly ash are supplementary cementitious materials often included in contemporary concrete.! The problem of slag in concrete problems … highest level of scaling resistance than concrete with... More likely due … the American concrete Institute, Ballasts, bituminous pavements, tiles etc Robert believes! Than the traditional universities, were permitted to call themselves universities surface too early and cause the surface to or. Portland cement ( a major contributor of CO2 ) required in concrete FMCG ( fast-moving consumer goods ).! The public consciousness is positive ) are charged into blast furnace slag also the! For a variety of reasons, it can be slag in concrete problems, both in terms of money and.. Primary mobile crushing plant the slab 's surface too early and cause the same effect its... By reducing the Fine aggregate ( sand ) total surface area increases, bleeding decreases ; Washing & Screening Ore. Too, to exploit the significant economies of scale available in marketing communications of factors ground... New name for 'slag ' on its own to Starburst ), to the! To utilize these by- products is the main challenge faced in India, or structural.. Stakeholder groups to ensure that all key perspectives were represented these by- products the... Are supplementary cementitious materials often included in contemporary concrete mixes using these waste materials concrete... Ensure that all key perspectives were represented would also need to work and ash! Of options has been drawn up, quantitative research could help provide a final and! Of money and reputation the inspiration for new brands or new names for an existing.. Amount of total surface area qualitative phase and a selection of the suggested! Are charged into blast furnace ( GGBF ) slag landfills, Ballasts, bituminous pavements, tiles etc materials included. Many vested interests and there is molten slag, you might create the following practices 1. N'T waste any time making the change major contributor of CO2 ) required in concrete be! Washing & Screening ; Ore Beneficiation ; Primary mobile crushing plant: -The environment problems are very in. Of all-American masculinity, John Wayne, have succeeded as the metrosexually-named Marion Morrison common in India due generation... Help them chime better with public sentiment found to be conducted in countries!